Preparation of Instructional Strategies for Early Childhood Educators in Punjab,Pakistan

Written by admin on October 1st, 2011


Determined by the developmental level of the child

Teacher as facilitator, director.

Experimental learning

John dewey



Behavior change. Preparation for the future

Determined by the teacher

Teacher has main role

Operant learning




Independent thinking and problem solving skills. Preparation for understanding

Determined by the age and developmental level of the child

Teacher as coworker. Prepared environment. Discovery learning





Plasma Link Web Services provides the Glossary of Instructional Strategies as a resource for all educators. Current number of strategies and methods is 988 according to this service. (October 19, 2007).

According to Singh and Rana(2004),

“Instructional strategy is some thing that is arranged designed by the teacher to establish interaction between the teacher, the student and the subject matter, or any combination of these three dimensions”

We can say that instructional strategies are the planned sequence of teaching methods. Instructional strategies are an important part of the early childhood Curriculum. The instructional strategies, used for enhancing learning of the children are usually derived from behavioral research. Each strategy is useful for teachers to support children’s early learning and development of all aspects and dimensions. The instructional strategies are the plans and the ways in which the teacher designs his/her teaching. (Singh&Rana: 2004).The strategies are the application of the skills of the teachers in the organization of the teaching learning process.

Principles to prepare instructional strategies for Early Childhood Education

Here are some principles derived from the books i.e. Early Childhood Education Today, by Morrison(1988), Guiding young children, by Verna(1990) and Becoming a teacher of young Children, by Dopyera(1993)etc. The researcher considers them to be helpful in preparation of instructional strategies for early childhood educators:

Activities should be a joyful experience for the children. Activities should be about daily living, so that, they may teach the children their responsibilities. Activities should follow the children’s nature. Activities should be less structured. Activities should have ability to have sensory training. Place every thing before the senses. Activities may not only be able to give training of socialization, but also training of religious and moral instructions. The teacher herself should give direction and guidance, but in in-formal way. Activities must be child centered, language based and cooperative learning based. Teacher must respond to the child questioning. Positive feedback must be provided to the students.  Respect for the child should not be ignored; rather, they should be Involved in motor activities as much as possible and encouraged to act in different activities related to practical life. Use multi-dimensional activities to encourage social inter action between teacher and students. The teacher must observe students during activities, give individualized instruction and emphasize drill and use concrete material as much as possible.  Activities should be reinforcing and meaningful. Physical, mental, motor, language, moral and psychological development of the child should be the first preference while developing the activities. Activities must increase the child’s ability to think, make children do the things themselves free from sexist behavior , should be free choice of activities, There should be combination of indoor and outdoor, quiet and active activities, Sharpen the power of observation of the children. Organize children in small groups. Use neither too hard, nor too easy activities. Put learning material on low shelves. Avoid crowding material. Use variety of methods. Be specific while developing activities. Give clear instructions. Help in assessing the students. Teach intellectual concepts through art activities. Bereiter and Englemann (1966) propose rewarding the child who tries, avoiding shaming and preserving the spirit of group.

According to Ministry of education, Pakistan,2003,  Shahida Mohiuddin, Hunzai, 2006, Juma, 2004, problems faced by the early childhood educators are lack of proper training both in the public and private sector, lack of resources, i.e. teaching kit, balls, blocks etc, big size of the class, lack of interest and commitment of teachers, lack of proper classroom, lack of cooperation of the society, lack of government support in terms of financial allocation, lack of an agreed amount of social values, domestic problems, contradictory situation at home and school, lack of exemplary personality traits among teachers, no laboratory, no transportation system, the same syllabus for all the children, no knowledge of objectives, new strategies are not encouraged by the head teachers, limited knowledge of using the instructional aids, limited ability to prepare instructional aids themselves, no knowledge of linking instruction with the objectives, limited awareness of the benefits of the ECE among parents and society.

The study dealt with the improvement of the teaching learning process at pre primary at present, so the researcher used the descriptive method of research. The data was collected from the teachers and the students in the form of questionnaires and observation sheets. These tools were used because of less expensiveness, ease of administration and suitability to the problem.The population of the study consisted of the early childhood educators of the early childhood education institutions in Punjab province. The students learning in these institutions were observed during teaching learning process. Simple random sampling method was used by selecting samples from private schools and government schools throughout Punjab.Total 66 early childhood educators were selected randomly from three districts of the Punjab, i.e. Bahawalpur, Lodhran and Bahawalnagar.Total 270 children were observed during the teaching learning process.

On the basis of analysis and interpretation of the data following findings were made:

  Findings of Questionnaire for Teachers  

 (87%) of the respondents is of the view that imitation is used to teach language,  (91%) agree that the teachers use verbal instruction.89% agree with the use of questioning strategy. 74% agree with the use of lecture method to teach language. (83%) of early childhood educators agree with providing storybooks to the children. (87%) agree that repeated presentation of the poems is used to teach language. (86%) agree showing films and videos to the children. (78%) agree that, listen, follow instructional strategy in games and  (82%) agree that listen; follow strategy in plays (dramas etc) is also an effective instructional strategy. For learning language, discussion based on pictures is agreed upon by 86% respondents and dramatic play is agreed by (77%)  respondents and (90%) agree that telling stories to the children is an effective instructional strategy for teaching language.                 

 (88%) of respondents agree for drill method to be used for teaching mathematic concepts. (90%) agree upon problem-solving strategy and (83%) of respondents agree for questioning strategy, (70%) agree that teaching activities regarding mathematics should be integrated with other activities and other activities should also be integrated with mathematic activities. (78%) think that writing should be used as a tool for learning counting. (75%) agree with writing strategy to be used as a tool for learning addition. (79%) agree for Puzzles given to children to solve math problems.70% agree with songs and poems focusing on rote memorization to be used as a tool for learning. (78%) agree with math concepts to be learnt through plays. (92%) agree withblocks to be used as a tool for learning math concepts.

89% respondent early childhood educators agree with learning science concepts by experiments.81% agree that exhibitions should be used as a tool for learning science concepts. Carrying out study tours is also an instructional strategy agreed by 82% respondents.74% agree carrying out project based learning as a tool . (86%) agree learning science concepts by group problem solving strategy.81% agree upon use of whole class discussion. (87%) agree for demonstration of science related objects, to be the tool for learning.88% agrees with learning science concepts by the laboratory work. (90%) agree that questioning strategy is used for understanding science concepts. (87%) agree that, Class gardens are made for understanding botany related concepts.

 (87%) of respondents agree about field trips to be arranged for the children.  (87%) agree about storybooks to be given to the children. (85%) teachers agree that textbook, having knowledge related to society is given to the children. (86%) agree that, festivals are celebrated inside the school. (90%) agree that, assembly lectures are used as a tool for learning social norms. (91%) agree that the children memorize national songs. (87%) agree thatdramatic plays are held for teaching social and moral values. (91%) agree that classroom discussion is used as a tool for learning.83% respondents agree that the teachers tell historical stories.

(91%) of the respondents agree that modeling is used as tools for learning religion.87% agree with the statement that the teacher uses verbal instruction for religious education. (89%) agree upon questioning strategy, (84%) agree upon use of lecture method for

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