Investment From Abroad is Right or Wrong?

Written by admin on May 18th, 2011


One of the outstanding features of globalization in the financial services industry is the increased access provided to non-local investors in several major stock markets of the world. Increasingly, stock markets from emerging markets permit institutional investors to trade in their domestic markets. Indian stock market opened to Foreign Institutional Investors in 14th September 1992, initially with lot of restrictions. The regulation on them are liberalized and minimized now, since 1993 has received a considerable amount of portfolio investment from foreigners in the form if FIIs investment in equities. This has become a turning point of India stock market. The government of India announced the policy of the government to permit the FII investment in India capital market. According to the SEBI modified the regulation on 14-11-1995. In order to make investment in India equity market they wanted to register with Security Exchange Board of India as foreign institutional investors. It is possible for foreigners to trade in India securities without registering as Foreign Institutional investors, but such cases require approval from Reserve Bank of India or the Foreign Institutional Promotion Board. They are generally concentrated in secondary market.

Domestic market alone not able to meet the growing capital requirement of the country and financing from mutilated institution has lost primary in the emerging in the global order .Besides aimed primarily at ensuring non-debt creating capital inflows at a time of extreme balance of payment crisis. It was to tie over the balance of payment crisis in the early 1990s

Portfolio flows often referred to as ‘hot- money’ are notoriously volatile capital flows. They have also responsible for spreading financial crisis causing contagion in international market. Evan though, the FIIs have been plying a key role in the financial markets since their entry into this country. The explosive portfolio flow by FII brings with them great advantages as they are engine of growth, lowering cost of capital in many emerging market. This opening up of capital markets in emerging market countries has been perceived as beneficial by some researchers while others are concerned about possible adverse consequences.

Clark and Berko (1997) emphasize the beneficial effects of allowing foreigners to trade in stock markets and outline the “base-broadening” hypothesis. The perceived advantages of base-broadening arise from an increase in the investor base and the consequent reduction in risk premium due to risk sharing. Other researchers and policy makers are more concerned about the attendant risks associated with the trading activities of foreign investors. They are particularly concerned about the herding behavior of foreign institutions and the potential destabilization of emerging stock markets.

This study addresses these issues in the context of foreign institutional investors’ (FII) trading activities in a big emerging market – India. India liberalized its financial markets and allowed FIIs to participate in their domestic markets in 1992. Ostensibly, this opening up resulted in a number of positive effects. First, the stock exchanges were forced to improve the quality of their trading and settlement procedures in accordance with the best practices of the world. Second, the information environment in India improved with the advent of major international financial institutional investors in India. On the negative side we need to consider potential destabilization as a result of the trading activity of foreign institutional investors. This is especially important in an emerging country that has embarked upon reforms to open up its market.

OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were as follows;

(1) To study the role of FII investment in the Indian stock market, ( 2 ) To examine the causal relationship between net FII investment and BSE sensex using granger causality test (3) To examine the causal relationship between net FII investment and NSE sensex using granger causality test (4 )To examine whether FIIs were a channel of global disturbance into the Indian stock market.

TOOLS: Study was carried out with the help of unit root test, co integration test, causal regression and F statistics for FII investment and index from BSE and NSE


Gayathri Devi .R in 2003, she conducted study on “Causal Relationship between FIIs and Stock Market: A critical study”. It revealed that there was long run relationship between net FII investment and sensex, FII investment did not respond the short-run changes or technical-position of the market and they were more driven by fundamentals, and FII investments did granger cause India stock market. “Selen Serisoy Guerin” in 2006, conducted study on “The Role of Geography in Financial and Economic Integration: A comparative Analysis of foreign direct investment, Trade and Portfolio Investment Flows”.. It found support for the argument that most FDI among Industrial countries were horizontal, whereas most FDI investment in developing countries was vertical and our results indicated that portfolio investment flows compared to FDI, were highly sensitive to change in GDP per capita, this implied that if there was a negative output stock, portfolio investment flows would be more volatile than FDI. A.Julia Priya, D. Lazar and Joseph Jeyapual in 2005, they conducted study on “Role of Foreign Institutional Investors on stock market development in India”, Results revealed that sensex, market capitalization of NSE, Turnover of BSE and NIFTY without market capitalizations were influenced by Foreign Institutional Investors“Suchismita Bose and Dipankor coondoo” in 2004, they conducted study on “The Impact of FII Regulation in India”,. These results strongly suggested The liberalization policies had the desired expansionary effect and had either increased the mean level of FII inflows and/or the sensitivity of these flows to a change in BSE returns and /or the Parthapratim pal in 2004 conducted study entitled as “Recent volatility in stock markets in India and foreign institutional investors. Findings of this study indicated that Foreign institutional investors had emerged as the most dominant investor group in the domestic stock market in India. Particularly, in the companies that constitute the Bombay stock market sensitivity index, their level of control was very highinertia of these flows.

“sandhya Ananthanaryanan, Chandrasekhar krishnamurthi and Nilajan Sen in 2003 conducted study as “Foreign institutional Investors and Security Returns: Evidence from Indian Stock Exchanges”, It found strong evidence consistent with the base-broadening hypothesis.It did not find compelling confirmation regarding momentum or contrarian strategies being employed by FIIs.It supported price pressure hypothesis.

It did not find any substantiation to the claim that foreigner’ destabilize the market. J.S. Pasricha and Umesh.C.Singh in 2001, tried to analyze the impact of FIIs investment on Indian capital market. Their study revealed that FII are here to stay and have become the integral part of Indian capital market. Their entry has led to greater institutionalization of the market. They have brought transparency in the market operations.S.S.S. Kumar in 2001, attempted in his study to find the effect of FIIs on the Indian stock market. The inference analysis of the paper suggests that FII investments are more driven by market fundamentals rather than by short term changers or technical position of the market. As per K. Seethapathi and V. Subbulakshmi study entitled “Foreign investment: Need for focus”, They concluded that, the flows have to pick up. The political will is to be demonstrated by the government. In addition, the regulators have to identify the reasons for failure in converting approvals into actual investments and those issues are to be addressed immediately. E. Han Kim and Vijay Singal in 1997, they conducted study entitled “Are open market Good for Foreign Investors and Emerging Nations?”, Conclusion revealed as. Integrating the emerging stock markets into world markets has had benefits, and will continue to have benefits for both global investor and host countries. The end result of integrated markets a better allocation of resources, improved productivity of capital, and a higher standard of living.


Between late 1990 and the middle of 1991, the economy faced severe balance of payment difficulties, coming close to defaulting on its external payment obligations in January and June of 1991. In January 1991, the Government negotiated with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for loans. What followed was the implementation of the conventional IMF-World Bank prescription of short-term ‘stabilization’, consisting of devaluation, temporary import compression, fiscal and monetary compression with a rise in interest rates, followed by more long-term ‘structural adjustment’ measures, seeking to restructure the domestic economy.

The New Economic Policy was an outcome of implementation of the ‘structural adjustment’ program. The ‘economic reforms’ or ‘economic liberalization’ program, which began to be implemented with the announcement of the New Economic Policy (NEP), included wide-ranging changes in industrial policy, trade policy and foreign investment policy, a

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